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    專家觀點
    文化遺產保護:應慎用“去粗取精”思維!
    來源:黃仲山 非遺中華     發布時間:2017/9/26  瀏覽量: 次    字體:

    封面圖片:成都國際非遺博覽園-成都非遺節   攝影:胡正霖  

         弘揚傳統文化確實需進行過濾和辨別,不應不加批判地應用于現實生活。然而,從文化保護的角度來說,卻不能唯優秀論,搞一刀切,因為所謂的“優秀”與“不優秀”、“精華”與“糟粕”、“精”與“粗”,其涵蓋面太廣,彈性太大,很容易誤傷,也很容易變保護初衷為實質性的破壞。因此在文化保護領域,去偽存真非常必要,去粗取精則值得商榷。

      過去的許多事實證明,許多政策有非常好的初衷,但壞就壞在實際操作中把經念歪了。如果歷史文化遺產保護理念和認證標準太單一、太機械,政策的口子開得太大,所有被認定為“非優秀”的文化遺存都有可能遭遇滅頂之災。

           在經濟利益的唆使下,動機不純的人在政策和法律禁止的情況下尚且敢于破壞文化遺產,若是有明確的官方認定“不值得保護”的歷史遺存,豈不就是給了這幫無良之人以尚方寶劍?他們毀壞古建、買賣文物的行為就更加理直氣壯乃至肆無忌憚了。

      過去大量文化遺產由于缺乏保護,處于自然消亡的狀態。這固然可惜,然而后來不少文化遺產則遭遇人為的加速破壞,其驅動力正是所謂的“去除糟粕”,給所謂“優秀”文化遺產讓路,給各級重點保護單位騰出資源,而這一切,有時竟然是由文化遺產保護部門主導的。 
         
           我們曾有過沉痛的教訓。以北京為例,前些年歷史文化街區保護缺乏整體保護的觀念,為了進行所謂的重點保護,將文化含量高、歷史價值大、品相端莊宏麗的王公貴族府邸、宮觀寺廟、名人故居等歷史建筑單獨標出,拆除周邊的其他民間建筑。原先的胡同和四合院消失了,重點文物保護建筑變成了光禿禿的紀念館、博物館,失去了這些建筑遺產原先的整體風貌。

          這些年,學界對過去的保護理念進行了反思,政府有關部門也在專家建議下改進了工作思路,注重歷史文化街區整體風貌的保護。這說明,將文物和古建筑孤立地按文化價值區分三六九等,以此確定保護的力度的做法存在很大的弊端,對那些歷經風雨而勉強存留下來的文化遺產來說,無疑是二次傷害,而這種傷害更令人痛心之處則是以“保護優秀文化遺產”為名。

      同樣地,在非物質文化遺產保護中,以“保護優秀、剔除糟粕”為名搞一刀切,也是很危險的。多年以來,我們從事非物質文化遺產保護與傳承工作,都強調要力推精品項目,重視名家傳承、名藝演示和名品展出。這有意無意地剔除了大量被視為糟粕的舊物、舊事、舊民俗和舊文化,這些文化遺存從非遺名錄認定與篩選過程起就被大量擋在門檻之外,進入不了人們的視野。

           從當前的文化價值觀出發,對于被認定的糟粕,要直接談放棄何其容易,什么都不要做,自然就會消亡,連痕跡都不會留下,同時因為其身上附有糟粕的標簽,舍去也不會背負社會壓力和文化負罪感。

      然而,人們似乎忽視了一個因素:文化是永遠發展變化的,在這種情況下,如何界定傳統文化的精華與糟粕?是否有一個固定不變的標準?誰有資格劃定文化遺產的價值等級?所謂值與不值,只是我們根據當下文化發展現狀和既有觀念的判定,且不說這種判定是否會出現失誤,即便是我們所理解的糟粕,也是過去文化的一段印跡,從還原歷史的角度來說,至少也應該給予存檔保留。  
       
           另一方面,許多看似冷僻過時的傳統技藝和文化,隨著現代社會的發展,往往會找到存續的希望,如果斷了就不可再生,給民族文化傳承留下永久的遺憾。

      盡可能保留文化的多元樣態是我們的責任,為我們的文化遺產寶庫留下更多的資源,為我們未來的文化發展提供無限可能,是我們應承擔的歷史使命。因此,不要輕言某種文化傳統會被淘汰,不應僅僅滿足于保護“必須保”“值得保”的文化遺產資源,或許時移世易,曾經消失的傳統會被重新激活,融合現代元素的遺產資源會被加速重構、重組,成為新文化發端的源頭和契機。

           鑒于此,應給這些陽光照不到的文化遺存一點機會,灑一點甘露給那些看似“不夠優秀”“不值得保”的歷史文化遺產,讓它們起碼能最低限度地保存下來,說不定未來的某一天,它們又會綻放于民族文化的百花園。

    (作者:黃仲山,系北京市社會科學院文化研究所副研究員)

    另:圖片與原文無關,原文始發于《光明日報》。

    注:圖文來自網絡,非遺中華整理,公眾號“非遺中華(id:feiyizhonghua)”!

     

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